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"James" or "Jacob" in the Bible?


          Apostle Jacob/James, of Zeb        Jacob, the Just - Godbrother of Jesus    Apostle Jacob/James of Alpheus

Source: https://www.biblicalarchaeology.org/


The problem of names surfaced at a recent Bible study at the St. Paul Union Church in Antalya, Turkey. Pastor Dennis Massaro was discussing the three men named James in the New Testament: Two were apostles, and the third was the leader of the Jerusalem church and author of the eponymous letterthe Book of James. Participants in the study came from a range of countries, including the Netherlands, Iran, Mexico, Moldova and Cameroon. When I asked what the name of these men was in their languages, they all said Jacob.

When I was teaching a course on the New Testament General Letters (Hebrews through Jude), I began by introducing the Book of Jacob, also known as the Book of James. Students were perplexed until they learned that Jacob is the proper translation of the Greek name Iakōbos. One student wrote later that knowing this turned my understanding of the writing upside down. Another observed that with the name change, the loss of the Jewish lineage occurs.

   image patriarch Jacob

The Patriarch Jacob

So how did the Jewish name Yaakov become so Gentilized as James? Since the 13th century, the form of the Latin name Iacomus began its use in English. In the 14th century, John Wycliffe made the first Bible translation into English and translated Iakobus as James. (However, in both the Old and New Testaments he arbitrarily used the name Jacob for the patriarch). In all future English translations the name stuck, especially after 1611, when King James I sponsored the translation then called the Authorized Version. Since 1797 it has been called the King James Bible.

So what is lost by using James instead of Jacob? First, it has created an awkwardness in academic writing. Scholars providing a transliteration of James indicate Iakōbos, which even lay readers know is not the same. Hershel Shanks has noted that the reason Israeli scholars failed to understand the significance of the eponymous ossuary is that they didnt connect James with Yaakov.1

Second, Jamess ancestral lineage is lost, as the student noted above. In Matthews genealogy, we learn that Josephs father was named Jacob (Matthew 1:16) and that his family tree included the patriarch Jacob (Matthew 1:2). James was thus named after his grandfather. As Ben Witherington writes, It is clear that the family of James was proud of its patriarchal heritage.2 So Jacob was the third Jacob in the family.

Third, Jamess Jewish cultural background is minimized. Tal Ilan identifies Jacob as the 15th most popular name in Palestine in antiquity, with 18 known persons carrying it.3 Including both the Eastern and Western Diasporas, Jacob was the third most popular Jewish name, with 74 occurrences.

Fourth, the Jewish literary heritage is muddled. The Book of Jacob (i.e., the Book of James) is addressed to the twelve tribes in the diaspora (James 1:1) and full of references and allusions to the Torah and Wisdom Literature of the Jewish Bible (Christians Old Testament). Scholars consider James the most Jewish book in the New Testament. Its genre is considered to be a diaspora letter like Jeremiah 29:123 and the apocryphal works The Epistle of Jeremiah, 2 Maccabees 1:12:18, and 2 Apocalypse of Baruch 7886.

For these reasons, changing English translations of James to Jacob makes a lot of sense. In my lifetime we have adapted to a number of name changes: Bombay to Mumbai, Peking to Beijing, Burma to Myanmar, and Rhodesia to Zimbabwe. These changes were soon incorporated by the media as well as in subsequent editions of geographical and historical books. Making such an onomastic adjustment need not be too difficult in religious circles, either.

But can such a switch be made practically? Biblical scholars and publishers would need to agree that continued use of James is linguistically indefensible and culturally misleading. Most difficult to change would be Bible translations, which are very conservative. To start, a footnote could denote that James is really Jacob. And while were at it, lets rehabilitate Jacob as the name of two of Jesus disciples/apostles. These connections, now lost only for English readers, were caught by Greek-speaking audiences as well as modern readers of translations in most other languages. Lets give Jacob his due.



Article published in English on: 13-11-2019.

Last update: 13-11-2019.