The early Christian writers Tertullian and Origen
mention the existence of a British Church in the
third century AD and in the fourth century British
bishops attended a number of councils, such as the
Council of Arles in 314 and the Council of Rimini in
The first member of the British church whom we know
by name is
Saint Alban, who, tradition tells us, was martyred for
his faith on the spot where St. Albans Abbey now
The British Church was a missionary church with
figures such as St Illtud, St
Ninian and St
evangelising in Wales, Scotland and Ireland, but the
invasions by the pagan Angles, Saxons and Jutes in
the fifth century seem to have destroyed the
organisation of the Church in much of what is now
England. In 597 a mission sent by St Gregory the
Dialogist and led by St
Augustine of Canterbury landed in Kent to begin
the work of converting these pagan peoples.
What eventually became known as the "Church of
 was the result of a combination of
three traditions, that of Augustine and his
successors, the remnants of the old Romano-British
traditions and the Celtic tradition coming down from
Scotland and associated with people like
St Aidan and
These three traditions came together as a result of
increasing mutual contact and a number of local
synods, of which the
Synod of Whitby in 664 has traditionally
been seen as the most important. The result was an
English Church, led by the two Archbishops of
Canterbury and York, that was fully assimilated into
the mainstream Church. This meant that it was
influenced by the wider development of the Christian
tradition in matters such as theology, liturgy,
church architecture, and the development of
Regarding the British Isles, what is known about the
state of the Church there at the time of the
Great Schism is that subsequent to the
Norman Invasion in 1066, Church life was radically
altered. Native clergy were replaced, liturgical
reform enacted, and a strong emphasis on papal
church control was propagated. As such, it is
probably safe to say that, prior to 1066, the church
of the British Isles was Orthodox, and the Normans
brought the effects of the Great Schism to British
soil. As such, it is probably proper to regard
Harold II as an Orthodox Christian.
also meant that after King
Harold II, the English Church continued under the authority of the "Pope"
and not with Orthodoxy and
this article does not consider the historical
development of the "Church of England" after this
reintroduced, by the Church of Greece and by Russia.
The greatest contributor towards documenting the
ecclesiastical and political history of England is
attested to St.
Bede, who completed in 731 five volumes of his
best known work The Ecclesiastical History of
Pre-Roman Britain (55 B.C. -
55 BC Julius
Caesar's first expedition to Britain, gaining a
foothold on the coast of Kent.
54 BC Julius
Caesar's second invasion of Britain, resulting
in many of the native celtic tribes paying
tribute and giving hostages in return for peace.
5 AD Rome
acknowledges Cymbeline, King of the Catuvellauni,
as king of Britain.
Introduction of Christianity (43-410)
Peter who, after visiting Milan, had
"passed over to the island of Britain,
now called England, (where) he spent
many years and turned many erring
Gentiles to faith in Christ";
Apostle Aristobulus (brother of St.
Barnabas), who is called the Apostle of
Britain and who was its first bishop;
Simon the Canaanite and Zealot. In these
Islands, the Celtic Church had shone
forth - especially during the glorious
period known as the "Age of Saints" when
its missionaries preached throughout
much of Europe, becoming 'Equals to the
Apocryphal legend claims that Joseph of
Arimathea accompanied the Apostle
Philip, Lazarus, Mary Magdalene & others
on a preaching mission to Gaul.
Eusebius of Caesarea, (AD 260-340)
Bishop of Caesarea and father of
ecclesiastical history wrote: "The
Apostles passed beyond the ocean to the
isles called the Britannic Isles."
had been a place of refuge for monks
fleeing from iconoclastic persecution;
so, later, it was referred to as "the
New Thebais" on account of the number of
43 Roman Emperor
Claudius conquers England at Richborough (Kent),
making it part of the vast Roman Empire; London
British resistance leader is captured and taken
queen of the Iceni, led uprising against the
Roman occupiers but was defeated and killed by
the Roman governor, Suetonius Paulinus.
63 Joseph of
Arimathea, travels to Britain and lands in
 on the first Christian mission to
Aristobulus, consecrated as first bishop to
Roman conquest of Britain is complete, as Wales
is finally subdued; Julius Agricola is imperial
governor (to 84).
of Hadrian's Wall.
Severus is sent to Palestine to crush the
Tertullian wrote that Britain had received and
accepted the Gospel in his life time.
167 Most commonly
held date that Phagan and Deruvian sent by
Eleutherius to convert the Britons to
Hippolytus of Rome
Apostle Aristobulus listed in Romans 16:10
with Joseph of Arimathea and states that they
ended up becoming Shepherds of Britain.
of Wales, St.
Dyfan of Merthyr martyred at Merthyr Dyfan,
Wales, May 14.
208 Tertullian writes that Christ has followers on the far side
of the Roman wall in Britain where Roman legions
have not yet penetrated.
283-305 Protomartyr of England, St.
304 Repose of
Amphibalus at Verulamium (St Albans),
Hertfordshire, June 25; Julius and Aaron
 martyred at Caerleon, Britain,
July 1 under the persecutions of the Emperor
Diocletian; Socrates and Stephanus martyred in
Monmouthsire, September 17 under the
persecutions of the Emperor Diocletian
307 The Church in
Britain enjoys peace from the persecutions
313 "Edict of
Toleration" (Milan), Christianity is made legal
throughout the empire.
314 Council of
Arles, for the first time, three British bishops
attend a council.
First Ecumenical Council of Nicea
convened by the Roman Emperor Constantine.
received "Christian" baptism on his deathbed.
Joint rule of Constantine's three sons:
Constantine II (to 340); Constans (to 350);
Constantius (to 361)
Ninian establishes the church Candida Casa
at Whithorn in Galloway, Scotland, beginning the
missionary effort to the Picts.
 enters Britain from Rome and
introduces the Heresy of Pelagianism.
appoints Magnus Maximus as emperor in Britain
while conquering Gaul, Spain and Italy
Patrick born at Kilpatrick, Scotland.
395 Death of
Theodosius, the last emperor to rule an
undivided empire, leaving Arcadius, emperor in
the East and his other son, Honorius, emperor in
the West; the office of Roman Emperor changes
from a position of absolute power to one of
being merely a head of state.
403 Abduction of
Patrick to Ireland to serve as a slave;
Victricius, Bishop of Rouen, visits
Britain for the purpose of bringing peace to the
island's clergy, who were in dispute over the
406 Invasion of
Gaul by Germanic tribes, severing contact
between Rome and Britain
410 Escape of
Patrick back to Britain; Emperor Honorious
recalls the last legions from Britain; Britain
gains "independence" from Rome
; The Goths, under Alaric, sack
Early British Kingdoms:
Era of Celtic Missionaries (410-597)
end of Roman occupation of Britain; Pelagian
is driven out of Britain by the Goths of Alaric
and moves to Palestine.
Patrick of Ireland has a vision of God
informing him that he will leave for Ireland.
Pelagianism is attacked at the
Council of Diospolis
Pelagianism is condemned at the
Council of Carthage
Brychan of Brecknock born, circa 419, in
Celestine I dispatches prominent
Germanus of Auxerre and Lupus of Troyes to
Britain as missionary bishops and to combat the
Patrick ordained by St.
Germannus, Bishop of Auxerre.
Augustine and Pelagius;
Patrick sent from Aesir in Gaul to mission
born in Gwent of Wales.
445 Founding of
monastery at Armagh in northern Ireland.
Germannus returns to Britain with Severus
and heals a lame youth, condemns Pelagian
monasteries established in Wales; Anglo-Saxon
invasion of Britian.
Saxons and Angles conquer Britain, founding
several independent kingdoms.
459 Repose of Auxilius
461 Repose of the
Holy Hierarch St.
Patrick, the Apostle of Ireland, at Saul,
Downpatrick, Ireland March 17
Brendan the Navigator born at Tralee in
Brigid of Kildaire founds monastery of
Kildare in Ireland.
Gildas the Wise born in the lower valley of
the Clyde in central Scotland
521 Birth of
Columba of Iona.
525 Repose of St.
Brigid of Kildaire, February 1;
Gildas the Wise studies under St.
Illtyd and travels to Ireland with
David of Wales and
Cadoc, here he is ordained to the
Brendan the Navigator lands in Newfoundland,
Canada, establishing a short-lived community of
Kentigern appointed bishop to Strathclyde
Britons (modern Glasgow).
545 Synod of
Brefi at Llandewi Brefi in Wales condemns
David of Wales moved the Primatial See of
Britain from Caerleon to Menevia (St. David's).
Columba founds monastery of Derry in
David of Wales does obeisance to the
Patriarch of Jerusalem.
550 Repose of St.
Jarlath of Tuam, first Bishop of Tuam, June 6; Aed of
Ferns born at Inisbrefny, Ireland.
Kentigern, Bishop of Glasgow and Strathclyde
exiled by pagans fleeing to Menevia, Wales.
Columba founds monastery of Durrow in
Brendan the Navigator founds monastery at
Gildas the Wise returns to Ireland at the
invitation of King Ainmeric.
Columba arrives on
Iona and establishes monastery there,
founding mission to the Picts.
564 Death of
David of Wales holds
Victoria to re-assert the anti-Pelagian
decrees of Brefi.
570 Repose of
Gildas the Wise, January 29, his relics
allowed to drift; relics of
Gildas the Wise recovered and translated to
the church in Rhuys, April 29.
Kentigern returns to Scotland after exile;
Kentigern evangelises Galloway and Cumberland.
Aedan of Ferns returns to Ireland after
studying under Saint
David of Wales in Wales.
Kentigern returns to Glasgow.
577 Repose of St.
Brendan the Navigator, May 16.
587 Repose of
David of Wales, March 1.
597 Repose of
of Iona, enlightener of Scotland,
Anglo-Saxon England: The
English Orthodox Church (597-1066)
According to historians, during this period St.
Non, the mother of St.
David of Wales, and the daughter of the nobleman
Cynyr of Caer Goch of Pembrokeshire, reposed and St. Materiana of
Cornwall, April 9, reposed early 6th-century
at Minster of Cornwall.
597 Gregory the
 and forty monks to Britain to
convert the Kingdom of Kent;
Augustine first preaches in the Isle of
Thanet to King Ethelbert, receiving license to
enter the Kingdom of Kent; King Ethelbert is
converted and on Christmas day 10,000 of the
king's subjects were baptized; Augustine was
consecrated Abp. at Arles, and establishes the
See of Canterbury.
598 Brandon mac
Echac (d. 603) convence a synod at which the
Diocese of Ferns is made an episcopal see and
Aedan of Ferns is made the first Bishop;
Glastonbury Abbey founded; the Church in the
British Isles numbers 120 bishops, hundreds of
monasteries and parishes organized under a
Primate with his See at Menevia.
Celtic missions are launched in Northumbria
601 Death of
David of Wales, Bishop of Menevia; Gregory
sends the St Augustine Gospels to
Augustine of Canterbury
Augustine repairs the church of our Saviour
and builds the monastery of St. Peter the
Apostle, "Peter" is the first abbot of the same.
603 Repose of
Kentigern of Glasgow, January 11; Ethelfrid,
king of the Northumbrians, having vanquished the
nations of the Scots, expels them from the
territories of the English.
604 First Bishop
of London, Mellitus
Augustine in the province of East Saxons;
Repose of Saint
Augustine of Canterbury "Apostle to the
English" May 26; Saint
Laurence of Canterbury consecrated as the
second Archbishop of Canterbury; Bp. Mellitus
founded the first St. Paul's Cathedral,
traditionally said to be on the site of an old
Roman Temple of Diana (although Christopher Wren
in the 17th c. found no evidence of this).
612 Repose of
Dubricius of Caerleon, Archbishop of
Caerleon and Wales, November 14.
618 Repose of
Donnan & his monk companions in
Eigg, April 17.
619 Repose of Laurence
of Canterbury, February 3;
Mellitus consecrated as third Archbishop of
624 Repose of
Mellitus , first Bishop of London, April 24.
Biscop born in Northumbria.
Audrey of Ely born in West Suffolk.
632 Repose of
Aed of Ferns,
 Bishop of Ferns in Ireland,
Cuthbert born in Britain.
640 Repose of Beuno
the Wonderworker, Abbot of Clynnog, April
647 Repose of Felix of
Burgundy, Apostle of East Anglia, March
of Lagny, January 7)
Cuthbert of Lindisfarne witnesses the soul
Aidan of Lindisfarne reposing as a light in
the night sky and leaves for Melrose Abbey to
become a monk; Repose of St.
Aidan of Lindisfarne, enlightener of
Northumbria of Northern England, August 31.
the Elder set off to visit Rome.
Cuthbert of Lindisfarne and
join a monastery at Ripon.
Synod of Whitby;
Cuthbert stricken by the great pestilence;
repose of St. Boisil,
abbot of Melrose Abbey, Scotland, February 23
of Mayo follows
Colman and settles in Innisboffin.
669 Theodore of
Tarsus arrives in Kent at the age of seven.
Colman founds an English monastery, separate
to the irish, the "Mayo of the Saxons",
Gerald of Mayo as the first abbot.
672 Repose of
Chad of Lichfield and Mercia, March 2.
675 Repose of
Ethelburgh, first abbess of the Convent of
Cuthbert becomes a solitary on Farne Island.
679 Repose of
Audrey of Ely.
680 Repose of
Botolph of Iken, June 17; Repose of St.
Hilda of Whitby, November 17; Sussex is the
last part of England to be converted to
681 Repose of
Cuthbert of Lindisfarne consecrated Bishop
of Lindisfarne, March 26, by St. Theodore
686 Repose of
Cuthbert of Lindisfarne, March 20.
689 Repose of Benedict
Biscop, abbot, in Wearmouth, Co Durham,
690 Repose of
Theodore of Tarsus, eighth Archbishop of
Canterbury, September 19
694 Repose of
Sebbe, founder of the monastery of Westiminster.
693 Repose of
Erconwald, Bishop of London.
Audrey of Ely found.
of Mayo resigns as abbot of the "Mayo of
the Saxons" in favour of St. Adamnan; Relics of
Cuthbert of Lindisfarne revealed to be
of Mayo resumes the abbacy of the "Mayo
of the Saxons".
709 Repose of
Wilfrid, Bishop of Hexham, April 24.
714 Repose of
Guthlac of Crowland, the hermit, April 11.
716 Repose of
Donald of Ogilvy, confessor of Scotland,
731 repose of
Gerald, Bishop of Mayo and english monk,
Bede writes "The Ecclesiastical History
of the English People"'
735 Repose of
Viking Age (793-1066)
Edmund of East Anglia, martyred
870 Repose of Ss.
Beocca and Hethor, the two martyrs of Chertsey.
Ecclesiastical History was translated
into Old English at the insistence of
Alfred the Great.
899 Repose of
Alfred the Great,
903 Relics of
Alfred the Great
 translated to New Minster Abbey.
934 Death of
Birnstan of Winchester.
935 Relics of St.
Brelade translated by King Athelstan to
955 Repose of
Edred of England,
988 Repose of St.
Dunstan of Canterbury, Bishop of London.
ca.988-1023 The "Bosworth
Psalter" is compiled at Canterbury,
including a calendar of the Orthodox Church from
among the Saints of Western, especially English
origin who reposed before the West fell away
1002 Repose of
St. Wulsin, renewer of the Monastery of St.
1012 Repose of
Alphege, Archbishop of Canterbury martyred
to the east of London at Greenwich,
1030 Relics of
Boisil (Boswell), Prior of Melrose (+661),
are translated to Durham Cathedral by the priest
Roman Catholic Period
Latin Continental Ecclesiology Formalized
the last Orthodox King of England,
Harold of England,
1072 On October
15, the last English Orthodox bishop,
Ethelric of Durham, after anathematizing the
Pope, died in prison at Westminster.
1104 Relics of
Cuthbert of Lindisfarne translated
 from Lindisfarne to Durham
Geoffrey of Monmouth writes his chronicle
Historia Regum Britanniae ("History of
the Kings of Britain").
witnessed the continual struggle between the
English Kings and the Church in Rome for the
legal high ground.
1170 Abp. of
Thomas Becket is assassinated in December in
Canterbury Cathedral, after having
excommunicated the Abp. of York and the Bps. of
London and Salisbury, who had held the
coronation of Henry the Young King in York in
June, in breach of Canterbury's privilege of
Simon de Montfort, 5th Earl of Leicester
achieved prominence in the
Magna Carta is issued, arguably the most
significant early influence on the extensive
historical process that led to the rule of
constitutional law and democracy today in the
English speaking world.
Richard Le Poore is said to have been
responsible for the final form of the "Use
of Sarum", which had the sterling reputation
of being the best liturgy anywhere in the West.
Dominican Friars (known as Black Friars)
arrive in England, appearing in Oxford.
Simon de Montfort, 6th Earl of Leicester
calls the first English parliament.
1295 King Edward
I summons the
Model Parliament, including members of the
clergy and the aristocracy, as well as
representatives from the various counties and
Hundred Years' War between England and
1347 Death of
William of Ockham, English Franciscan friar
and scholastic philosopher and a supporter of
the doctrine of
Apostolic poverty, which was held by
fundamentalist Franciscan and
mendicant orders, bringing them into
conflict with the pope; also the author of
1349 Death of
Richard Rolle, English religious writer and
mystic, Bible translator, and hermit.
Julian of Norwich, thought of as one of the
The Sixteen Revelations of Divine Love,
chronicling her prolonged states of ecstasy when
she saw visions of the sufferings of Christ and
of the Trinity.
Margery Kempe, a "religious enthusiast"
and laywoman, completes her autobiography The
Book of Margery Kempe, chronicling her
spiritual experiences, visions, and extensive
pilgrimages to various holy sites in Europe.
1453 The Hundred
Years War ends, England loses all its territory
in France except for Calais.
Wars of the Roses, a series of dynastic
civil wars between supporters of the rival
houses of Lancaster and York, for the throne of
William Caxton introduces the printing press
into England, setting up a press at Westminster;
the first book known to have been issued there
was an edition of Chaucer's Canterbury Tales.
Tudor Era (1485-1603)
1534 Act of
Supremacy by which the Parliament of England
declared King Henry VIII as 'the only supreme
head on earth of the Church in England', and
affirming the legal sovereignty of the civil
laws over the laws of the Church in England.
1536-1541 Dissolution of the Monasteries, nunneries and
friaries in England, Wales and Ireland.
1549 First Book
of Common Prayer is introduced.
controversy begins as John Hooper called for the
elimination of vestments; the controversy was
ostensibly concerning vestments, but more
fundamentally concerned with English Protestant
identity, doctrine, and various church
practices, shedding much light on the
development of English forms of Puritanism and
1553-1558 Restoration of Roman Catholicism by Queen Mary
I; Queen Mary I restored the Sarum rite in 1553
and promulgated it throughout England, but it
was finally abolished by Elizabeth I in 1559.
1558-1603 Elizabethan Era, final break with the Roman
Reformation marks Scotland's formal break with
Papacy in 1560; the Reformation
Parliament repudiated the pope's authority,
forbade the celebration of the Mass and approved
a Protestant Confession of Faith, being made
possible by a revolution against French
Thirty-Nine Articles of Religion were
established, the historic defining statements of
Anglican doctrine in relation to the
controversies of the English Reformation.
1564-1660 The Era
1603-1625 Jacobean Era.
1625-1642 Caroline Era.
1649-1660 Interregnum: Commonwealth of England:
Anglicanism was disestablished and outlawed, and
in its place, Presbyterian ecclesiology was
introduced in place of the episcopate; the 39
Articles were replaced with the Westminster
Confession, and the Book of Common Prayer was
replaced by the Directory of Public Worship.
Restoration (1660-1689): Orthodox Presence
was restored in a form not far removed from the
Elizabethan version. However the ideal of
encompassing all the people of England in one
religious organisation, which was taken for
granted by the Tudors, had to be abandoned. The
religious landscape of England assumed its
present form; the Anglican was the established
church occupying the middle ground; Roman
Catholics and those Puritans and Protestants who
dissented from the Anglican establishment, too
strong to be suppressed altogether, had to
continue their existence outside the National
Church rather than controlling it.
revision of the Book of Common Prayer is
published, remaining the official prayer book of
the Church of England up until the 21st century
(when an alternative book called Common Worship
largely displaced it in Anglican parishes).
of Thyateira and Great Britain established by
Daniel Voulgaris first Greek Orthodox
Community in London, re-establishing an Orthodox
presence in Great Britain.
1676 Arrival of
Joseph Georgerines, Archbishop of Samos.
1677 "Greek St
Church to the Panagia" erected for the
Archdiocese of Thyateira and Great Britain
1684 "Greek St
Church to the Panagia" confiscated and handed
over to Huguenot refugees from France.
Archdiocese of Thyateira and Great Britain
forced to worship for the next 150 years in the
Imperial Russian Embassy.
1688 The Glorious
Revolution (Revolution of 1688), overthrew King
James II of England (VII of Scotland and II of
Ireland) by a union of Parliamentarians with an
invading army led by William III of
1689 Act of
Toleration, partially restores civil rights
to Nonconformists who dissented from the Church
of England, such as Baptists and
Congregationalists, allowing them their own
places of worship and their own teachers and
preachers, subject to acceptance of certain
oaths of allegiance; however this did not
include Roman Catholics, Quakers or non-trinitarians.
The Revolution Entrenched
United Kingdom of Great
1738 Print 'Noon'
shows evidence of a crowd exiting a Greek
Parliament of Great Britain enacted the
Papists Act 1778, the first Act for Roman
Catholic Relief, reversing some of the penalties
Popery Act 1698.
Gordon Riots, an anti-Catholic uprising
against the act of 1778, which became an excuse
for widespread rioting and looting.
United Kingdom of Great
Britain and Ireland (1801-1927)
1827 A Byzantine
silk depicting the Earth and the Ocean was found
in the tomb of St.
Bp. of Lindisfarne, when it was
uncovered in May at Durham; the personified
Earth is shown emerging from the waters with
ducks and fishes, fishing being an allegory in
Church art of apostolic mission of preaching the
Russian Embasy offers hospitality in Finsbury
Park, London to the
Archdiocese of Thyateira and Great Britain
community for their religious activities.
ca. 1840-1927 St.
Arsenios of Cappadocia prophesised that
"The Church in the British Isles will only begin
to truly grow again when it begins to venerate
once more its own saints".
Orthodox church built in London Street in the
Tsar Nicholas Alexandrovich Romanov born
Orthodox Church of the Divine Wisdom (St Sophia)
in Bayswater built.
Nicholas II of Russia meets Princess
Alice Victoria Helen Louise Beatrix von Hessen-Darmstadt
Bede is made a "Doctor of the Church"
 by Leo XIII.
Orthodox Church of Saint Nicholas built in
Patriarchate transfers its rights for four Greek
Orthodox community churches to
Church of Greece.
1914 By this time
in Great Britain there existed four thriving
Greek Orthodox Communities, all centred around a
Greek Church of their own: London (Saint
Sophia), Manchester (The Annunciation),
Liverpool (Saint Nicholas), and Cardiff (Saint
1918 The family
Alexandra and their five children are lined
up in their basement and shot,
1922 Holy Synod
of the Oecumenical Patriarchate recognises the
Archdiocese of Thyateira and Great Britain
with London as its seat;
Germonos (Strinopoulos), former Rector of
the Halki Theological Academy, is chosen as the
first Bishop and Metropolitan of Thyateira.
United Kingdom of Great
Britain and Northern Ireland (1927-Present)
1941 Death of
Evelyn Underhill, an English
Anglo-Catholic writer and pacifist known for
her numerous works on religion and spiritual
practice, in particular
1948 HRH Princess
Elizabeth, the present Queen, married the Greek
Orthodox Prince Philip, the present Duke of
Edinburgh; he was officially required to cease
to be Orthodox, although he never ceased to make
the Orthodox sign of the cross in public.
1951 Death of
Germonos (Strinopoulos); Succeeded by Abp.
Sophrony (Sakharov) seeks a monastic life in
Essex of London;
Timothy Ware converted from the Church of
England to the Greek Orthodox Church.
St. John the Baptist founded by Elder
Sophrony in Tolleshunt Knights, Maldon,
Essex under the
jurisdiction of Metr.
Anthony (Bloom) of
1962 Repose of
Diocese of Sourozh is founded by Metr.
Anthony (Bloom) of Sourozh.
Gregorios (Theocharous) appointed Chancellor
Archdiocese of Thyateira.
Patriarchal Stavropegic Monastery of St John the
Baptist moved under the Ecumenical
Nicholas Couris ordained a priest for
ROCOR in Ireland.
Timothy Ware is ordained to the priesthood
and tonsured as a monk, receiving the name
Kallistos; repose of St.
John Maximovitch, Archbishop of London
Gregorios (Theocharous) consecrated
Bishop of Tropaeou,
Chrysostomos (Mavroyiannopoulos) made
Bishop of Kyanea,
December 19; acquired in 1960,
St. Luke's Greek Orthodox Church in Glasgow,
Scotland, is elevated to a Cathedral by the Pope
and Patriarch of Alexandria,
Nicholas VI (Valeropoulos), with the
blessing of the Ecumenical Patriarchate.
1973 Anglican-Orthodox dialogue began, when the
Anglican-Orthodox Joint Doctrinal Discussions
(A/OJDD) held its first meeting in Oxford.
1975 Repose of
Nikolaos of Halkis in a London hospital; the
Greek Orthodox community of Saint Panteleimon of
Harrow is established;
Athenagoras (Kokkinakis) publishes The
Thyateira Confession: The Faith and Prayer of
1976 The first
phase of the Anglican-Orthodox dialogue was
concluded by the publication of The Moscow
1977 Death of Fr.
Nicholas Couris; the New Oxford Annotated
Bible with the Apocrypha -
Revised Standard Version (Expanded Edition)
is published, endorsed by Abp.
Athenagoras (Kokkinakis) of Thyateira and
Diocese of Sourozh buys the Cathedral of the
Dormition and All Saints, in London's
1979 Repose of
Athenagoras (Kokkinakis) succeeded by Abp.
Kallistos (Ware) of Diokleia appointed.
Antiochian Orthodox Society is established to
serve the Arabic speaking and believing
Anglican Church of St. Mary in Mary Street,
Dublin handed to the Greek Orthodox Community of
Dublin and Ireland, blessed and dedicated to the
Holy Annunciation by Abp.
Methodius (Fouyias of Thyateira, Great
Britain and Ireland,
Kallistos (Ware) of Diokleia consecrated as
Bishop for the
Thyateira and Great Britain; the
Church of St. Edward the Martyr is founded
in Brookwood, Surrey, England, under the
Schismatic) Metr. Cyprian of Oropos and Fyli
, to care for the sacred
relics of Saint
Edward the Martyr.
1984 The second
phase of the Anglican-Orthodox dialogue was
concluded with the publication of The Dublin
Methodios (Fouyias) is succeeded by Abp.
Gregorios (Theocharous) who is elected Abp.
Thyateira and Great Britain and enthroned at
the Cathedral of Sophia in West London,
1989 The third
phase of the Anglican-Orthodox dialogue began,
when the commission was re-constituted as The
International Commission for Anglican-Orthodox
Theological Dialogue (ICAOTD), under the
John of Pergamon and Bp. Henry Hill
(succeeded in 1990 by Bp. Mark Dyer).
Friends of Mount Athos society is formed by
people sharing a common interest for the
Mount Athos, with Metr.
Kallistos (Ware) of Diokleia being the
President of the society, also including Prince
Philip (Duke of Edinburgh) and Prince Charles
(Prince of Wales and Heir Apparent to the
British throne) among its members.
1991 The body of
Nicholas II of Russia is exhumed in
1993 Death of
1995 Death of
Philip Sherrard, theologian
May 30; establishment of the
Antiochian Orthodox Deanery of the United
Kingdom and Ireland.
1996 St. Aidan's
Antiochian Orthodox Church in Manchester
consecrated by Metropolitan
Richard Swinburne, Emeritus Professor of
Philosophy at the University of Oxford and a
very influential proponent of
natural theology, converted from the Church
of England to the Greek Orthodox Church.
Friends of Orthodoxy on Iona founded.
Nicholas II of Russia and family properly
laid to rest.
Institute for Orthodox Christian Studies is
founded in the ancient university city of
Cambridge with the blessing of all Orthodox
hierarchs in Western Europe, being a full member
of the Cambridge Theological Federation; the
Philokalia, Volume 4 published by
Theodoritos (Polyzogopoulos) of Nazianzos
elected and consecrated
Bishop of Nazianzos; the council of Bishops
Russian Orthodox Church unanimously
Nicholas, Alexandra and their five children
Archdiocese of Thyateira annual Youth
Conference held at Wood Green, North London,
April 21; Monachos.net
 online discussion community set
up by M.C. Steenberg;
Institute of Byzantine Studies established
at Queens' University, Belfast, Ireland.
Kallistos (Ware) of Diokleia retires.
2005 Mission in
Macclesfield dedicated to St. Theodore of
Canterbury opens in September.
Basil (Osborne) was accepted into the
jurisdiction of the Ecumenical Patriarchate on
June 8 and accorded the title of Bishop of
Amphipolis as head of the
Episcopal Vicariate of Great Britain and Ireland,
Patriarchal Exarchate for Orthodox Parishes of
Russian Tradition in Western Europe.
2007 The Holy
Synod of the Moscow Patriarchate officially
Basil (Osborne) from its jurisdiction on
March 27; the Abp. of Canterbury Dr. Rowan
Williams welcomed Patriarch
Bartholomew I to Westminster Abbey to
celebrate the publication of
The Church of the Triune God: The Cyprus Agreed
Statement, taking over 16 years to
produce, concluding the third phase of the
Anglican-Orthodox international theological
Diocese of Diokleia is elevated to a
Metropolis and Bp.
Kallistos (Ware) to Titular Metropolitan of
Elisey of Sourozh consecrated; death of Metr.
Gabriel (Saliby) of Western Europe (Antiochian).
John (Yazigi) of Western and Central Europe
Antiochian Orthodox Deanery of the United
Kingdom and Ireland; partnership between
Monachos.net (Patristic and Monastic
Ancient Faith Radio, launching a series of
weekly internet podcasts entitled "A
Word From the Holy Fathers".
2009 With the
retirement of Bp.
Basil (Osborne) of Amphipolis, the
Episcopal Vicariate of Great Britain and Ireland
Deanery of Great Britain and Ireland, coming
directly under the omophorion of Abp.
Gabriel (de Vylder) of Komana (Patriarchal
Exarchate for Orthodox Parishes of Russian
Tradition in Western Europe)
these dates are necessarily a bit vague, as
records for some periods are particularly
difficult to piece together accurately.
division of Church History into separate eras as
done here will always be to some extent
arbitrary, though it was attempted to group
periods according to major watershed events.
timeline is necessarily biased toward the
history of the
Orthodox Church, though a number of
non-Orthodox or purely political events are
mentioned for their importance in history
related to Orthodoxy or for reference.
G. E. Palmer,
Philip Sherrard and Bishop Kallistos Ware
translate and publish four volumes of the
Philokalia into English; Bishop Kallistos Ware
and Mother Mary produced English translations of
the Lenten Triodion and Festal Menaion.
Grand Duchess St.
Elizabeth (a grand-daughter of Queen Victoria
and a great-aunt of Prince Philip) and St. John
Maximovich, who have been associated with them
in the recent past.
The memory of
Brother Lazaros, killed (some would say,
martyred) within the Cathedral at Camberwell,
Monastery of St.
John the Baptist in Essex, which depends
directly on the Oecumenical Patriarchate and
whose Founder was the saintly Archimandrite
Sophrony, a pupil of St. Silouanos of the Holy
Greek Orthodox Church in Great Britain
Russian Orthodox Church in Great Britain
Antiochian Orthodox Archdiocese of Western and
↑ The "Church of England" (the Ecclesia
Anglicana - or the English Church)
↑ The British forces are led by
Joseph of Arimathea, with twelve
disciples, to establish Christianity in the
most far-flung corner of the Roman Empire:
the Island of Britain. The year AD 63 is
commonly given for this "event", with AD 37
sometimes being put forth as an alternative.
Tertullian wrote that Britain had
received and accepted the Gospel in his life
time: "All the limits of the Spains, and
the diverse nations of the Gauls, and the
haunts of the Britons--inaccessible to the
Romans, but subjugated to Christ."
↑ Hippolytus was considered to have been
one of the most learned Christian historians
and is the one who identifies the seventy
whom Jesus sent in the Gospel of Saint Luke
↑ The Anglo-Saxon Chronicles list the
year of St. Alban's execution as 283 not as
↑ St. Alban is first mentioned in "Acta
Martyrum", and also by Constantius of Lyon
in his Life of St. Germanus of Auxerre,
written about 480
↑ The earliest authority for their
existence is St.
De Excidio Britanniae.
↑ Ss. Socrates and Stephanus appear in
the Martyrologion Hieronymianum MS.50
from Trinity College, Dublin (11th-century)
and one of the earliest amplifications of
Bede's martyrology. Tradition holds them to
be disciples of St.
↑ St. Jerome suggests that this Pelagius
was of Scottish descent but in such terms
that it is uncertain as to whether he was
from Scotland or Ireland. He is also
frequently referred to as a British monk and
Augustine has been documented as referring
to him as "Brito" to distinguish him from
Pelagius of Tarentum.
↑ In early January, 406, a combined
barbarian force (Suevi, Alans, Vandals &
Burgundians) swept into central Gaul,
severing contact between Rome and Britain.
In autumn 406, the remaining Roman army in
Britain decided to mutiny. One Marcus was
proclaimed emperor in Britain, but was
↑ Emperor Honorius tells Britain to
attend to its own affairs, effectively
removing the Roman presence.
Auxilius of Ireland: The date of death
is also given as 454 or 455, see Sabine
Baring-Gould, The Lives of the Saints
(J. Hodges, 1898), 275.
↑ When he came to Ireland, as its
enlightener, it was a pagan country; when he
ended his earthly life some thirty years
later, about 461, the Faith of Christ was
established in every corner." (Great
Horologion) The work of St Patrick and his
brethren has been called the most successful
single missionary venture in the history of
↑ The date of St.
Gildas' birth can only tentatively be
placed to the decades either side of the
beginning of the Sixth Century. St.
Bede indirectly suggests the year 493
for this event and this is the date adopted
for this article.
↑ Saint Augustine of Canterbury is also
called the "Apostle to the English".
↑ The "St Augustine Gospels" manuscript
is the oldest surviving Latin illustrated
Gospel book in existence.
↑ A bronze reliquary in which the relics
Aed of Ferns are kept is currently
preserved in Dublin.
Beuno the Wonderworker, Abbot of Clynnog,
was uncle to St.
Winefride of Treffynon,
November 3, whom he also restored to
21. ↑ Almost all that is known of St. Boisol
or Boswell, is learn from St.
Bede (Eccles. Hist., IV, xxvii, and Vita
↑ The Mayo (Magh Eo, the yew plain),
known as "Mayo of the Saxons". St.
Bede writes of this monastery: "This
monastery is to this day (731) occupied by
English monks... and contains an exemplary
body who gathered there from England, and
live by the labour of their own hands (after
the manner of the early Fathers), under a
rule and canonical abbot, leading chaste and
↑ Cædmon is said to have taken holy
orders at an advanced age and it is implied
that he lived at Streonæshalch at least in
part during Hilda’s abbacy (657–680). Book
IV Chapter 25 of the Historia ecclesiastica
appears to suggest that Cædmon’s death
occurred at about the same time as the fire
at Coldingham Abbey, an event dated in the E
text of the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle to 679,
but after 681 by Bede.
↑ Considered a local Saint by the
Orthodox church of England but not formally
↑ The proper name of Milton Abbey is the
Abbey Church of St. Mary, St. Samson and St.
↑ His [St.
Cuthbert of Lindisfarne] body was still
found to be untouched by decay, giving off
"an odour of the sweetest fragrancy", and
"from the flexibility of its joints
representing a person asleep rather than
Margery Kempe (ca.1373-ca.1439) stands
very much alone in the English
mystical tradition. Indeed, she is
thought by some to be outside this tradition
because of the lack of depth in her
revelations, the highly personal level of
her visions, and the extremes of her
behaviour. If she is a mystic, it is
certainly not in the same sense as her
better known contemporaries such as
Richard Role or
Julian of Norwich.
"In the year of salvation 1677 this
Temple was erected for the nation of the
Greeks, the Most Serene Charles II being
King, and the Roual Prince Lord James being
commander of the foreces, the Right Reverend
Lord Henry Compton being Bishop, at the
expense of the above and other Bishops and
Nobles and with the concurrence of our
Humility of Samos Joseph Georgeirenes, from
the island of Melos." - Inscription from
tablet carved in Greek preserved on the west
wall of the church Charing Cross Road. This
site is now occupied by St Mary's of Kenton
a non-Orthodox denomination.
↑ From the series entitled
Times of the Day".
↑ In Hogarth’s time the portion of the
street where the church stood was called Hog
Lane. It was later renamed Crown Street and
was demolished when Charing Cross Road was
↑ The position of "Doctor of the Church"
is a position of theological significance;
Bede is the only man from Great Britain
to achieve this designation (Anselm
of Canterbury, also a Doctor of the
Church, was originally from Italy